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Saffron Exports

Edible or saffron crocus(crocus sativus) is a small perennial plant with the height of 10 to 30 cm.From the middle or base of the bulb and stem,narrow and long leaves emerge. From the middle of leaves, flower stalks emerge that lead to three goal branches.Beautiful flowers with six purple petals, which in some varieties may shift to purple or violent color.

 

The flower shave three stamens and a pistil leading to the orangish red color stigma branches. Usable part of this plant,is the last section of cream and triple stigma, which is known by the famous name of "Saffron", that contains aromatic odor with slightly bitter taste. Geographical distribution ofsaffron in Iran is amongst Khorasan (Qaenat, Birjand and Gonabad), Yazd, Kerman, Gilan and Mazandaran.In recent years,the saffron has also been cultivated in Karaj, Qom.

Cultivation of saffron (Crocus especially Khorasan) dates back to 3,000 years.This historical colorful and precious plant, has no stems, but holds bulb in itself, since it cultivates in desert soil, it is known as red gold or desert gold. Of 150 flowers, one gram ofsaffron and from around 147 thousand fresh flowers, a kilogram of dried saffron is obtained.

Because of its Flavor and fragrance it has diverse usage in food products, pharmaceuticals and agro-chemicals. Based on its limited production it is considered as a valuable product. With an average production of 100 tons per year, Iran is ranked first in the production of saffron.

Deserts and arid areas of South Khorasan can be considered as the main breeding of this plant, growth of saffron in this area dates back to 700 years ago. Saffron is a rare plant that grows in harsh condition. Due to its historical origin in Iran it is the charm of this land. It is an industrial and pharmaceutical Plant.

Stigmas of the saffron flower or it's red head called the root, at the beginning of cultivation holds bright red color and gradually shifts to dark red color. It has a fresh scent and taste that can be conveyed into food.

For farmers in Khorasan saffron (red gold)is the main income. Plant only requires water twice, once early October in the first(pre-production stage) and also early December (the yields).spring water,rain and snow is enough for it. Planting and harvesting,it creates job opportunities abound, transportation is not expensive and can exchange technology.

From unofficial published statistics concerning saffron and companies active in this field, it is stated that over  one hundred thousand families use this product, especially in the cities of Torbate Heidariye, Ferdous, Gonabad, Bajestan, Sarayan, and Birjand and Kashmar,in the province of South Khorasan Razavi, Eghlid city and Estahban in the Fars province. From 230tons of saffron being produced worldwide every year, more than 170 tons is obtained in Khorasan, and the rest are products of Spain, Greece, Morocco, India and Afghanistan. Khorasan Razavi Province produces about 172 tons of saffron and with 75.5 percent of production, is the first producer of the country.

The history of saffron cultivation

While exporting saffron to many parts of the ancient world, they informed Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and among the Semitic Arabs about its properties. They also instructed Islamic nations around the Mediterranean about how to farm this plant around first to fourth century.

The first cultivation of Iranian saffron was done by Iranians, who were held by Moavieh in Sham regions,the cultivation of saffron in North Africa and Andalus(Islamic Spain) and Soghlie(Sicily) became common and the Iranian tribes, such as Rostamian and Banotabri had a major role in the transformation of saffron harvesting.

Historical documents indicate the fact that since ancient times Iranians loved gold and saffron, to a degree that in celebrations such as eve festivals, weddings and feasts, they would welcome the steps of their guests with gold and saffron. 

In a more glorious matter of holding ceremonies like decoration, Ainebandy, they would shower the bride and the groom with Golden coins and saffron, flowers

In some ceremonies, incense smoke, musk and amber alone or with saffron and rose essence were used. In the Achaemenid era saffron was used to decorate breads and flavor foods. In Parts era, saffron was sent to Greece and Rome. China later became a customer of Iranian saffron. Saffron cultivation in the Sassanid era became common in Qom while it's quality gained a lot of reputation. At the same time, the use of expensive saffron paper became regular, but more than that it was dissolved saffron as writing ink that became popular because of it's good quality and centuries later, composition of the compound had been still acceptable.

 

violet saffron flowers

saffron farm

 

Morphological  properties

In terms of morphological, saffron traits are delivered from leaf,the stigma, cream, petals, sepals, onion (bulb) and is divided into the ladle.

  • Leaf Characteristics: Saffron leaves is usually 10 cm or 40 cm, it has sharp leaves and it is darker on the leaves and it is different in different cultivars. Under leaf is clear, and is different.
  • in different types of saffron. leaf thickness varies from low to high in different varieties of saffron such as Caspian, Zagros, white, purple, Joghasm, beautiful.
  • Stigma: the stigma color has vast variety and depends on the amount of carotenoids and lycopene.From pale red to orange has been observed.Cap has three branches and is different from cream which also has 3 varieties which can be taller, shorter,or equal to the length of cap, it length is different from Petals. It has been observed in Iran that taller shorter or equal length of the mentionee can be found. the folded edge of the stigma is folded, which can be seen in many different species of saffron, And depending on it's type it can have different width from wide to narrow. The color of stigma at the Bottom  edge is white with streaks of color varies from high to low.

 

  • Cream: it is yellow colored, which in some varieties such as the Caspian it is a dark yellow, while Zagros variety has a lighter yellow, this variation in color is based on the different value of Carotenoids.
  • Petals/Sepals: 3 of each can be found and its thickness varies from low to high.
  • Saffron bulb shape can be round or indented.The diameter of the bulb in the middle is the beginning and the end can be responsible for this shape differentiation. This differentiation is an important market characteristic.
  • Bulb: General shape of the bulb can be beveled elliptical, diamond, or oval, circular,and wide elliptical. The width of the neck is one of the traits that may be very narrow, narrow, and too wide to be observed. 
  • If there are multiple modes in Saffron bulbs with bulbs of the plants that are there and it is possible that there are no percentages it mostly is.Saffron bulbs with brown fibers, which in some species is very compact and thinner and white onion in some species can be seen clearly. 
  • Needle leaves: The first limb of the Saffron that can be seen on soil after sprout.Scoop in some varieties are very tall and can be found in tall saffron, while they can be found in short saffron as well with the much less height, there are also moderate figures of this part.

Medical properties of saffron

  • Saffron is named in the official book of pharmacy, it can be found under the name of OpiiCrocataTincture with the shape of benzoin.

Saffron is effective in the treatment of depression and is used as an antidepressant.

  • Saffron extract can be found under the name of bitters Swedish as a product of different factories because of its pharmaceutical properties.
  • Saffron can reduce fat and cholesterol and expand the infiltration of oxygen in plasma.
  • Saffron is a sedative, antispasmodic, carminative, anti-tumor and is used as an appetizer
  • Saffron is used in the treatment of stomach, abdominal pain, and asthma.
  • Because of its joyful color, it can cause happiness in humans.
  • Saffron strengthening the heart, lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.

painkiller, anti-toxin, anti-edema, anti-oxidant, disinfectant, enhance sexual impotence, heart tonic, neutralize free radicals, abortion, the diaphoretic, digesting food, regulator, causing sputum, astringent, reduces cholesterol , lowering blood pressure, narcotics (opium), nerve tonic, nerve protection, tranquilizer, stimulating amplifiers, stomach and uterus.

Important components ofSaffron

The most important compounds in saffron are yellow compounds which are well soluble in water(Crocetin derivatives), including bitter compounds such as Picrocrocin that are dependable stomach tonics, aromatic substances(essential oils) the most important one is Saffranal which sometimes makes up to 1% of saffron, maximum 10% of fixed oil, moisture of 1310%,with  mineral composition of 5 percent.

Mobtakeran company is Saffron export sole-sale company of Iran Saffron, including Sargol, Dunnage, Branched and Cream using direct price of the farmer or a price correction. In the following table you can become familiar with the types of dates export. Because of its exquisite taste, smell and yellow color it is often used in Bakery, Ice-cream, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other industries. Mobtakeran export saffron are created and packed in four different methods which you can find in the below chart 

Product name description images
Sargol(all redSaffron)
  • pure and Includes the stigma with out the cream
  • 1 kilo can be produced from 105 kg of flower
 
Dunnage  
  • The combination of saffron that is longer and thicker
  • In cludes stigmas with 3-5 mm cream
  • 1 kilo can be produced from 101 kg of flower
 
Branched (Clustersaffron)
  • Includes stigma with whole saffron cream flowers
 
Cream [white]
  •  this type of saffron only contains the cream and  has no color
 

Packaging

As paper, cans, metal, cellophane and box and in custom sizes 0.5g, 1g, 1.5g, 2, and 3 grams, are also provided in compliance with all health principles.

Saffron cropis sensitive, especially after being milled; it must be kept away from light and moisture and must be kept in ajar.

Because the essential oils and aromatic substances in saffron is highly evaporable, with out proper maintenance, the oil will evaporate over time and the effects of drugs and the taste is reduced and its quality is lost.

With this knowledge, highly trained staff and personnel of Mobtakeran Company take this knowledge into their work from the process of purchase, transportation, to the packaging and shipping of products to meet all of the above quality products reach the customers.



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